Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) comprise of small nodes with sensing, computation and wireless communication capabilities. This work is targeted for Data Gathering. Since numerous sensors are usually deployed on remote and inaccessible places, the deployment and maintenance should be made easy and scalable. Nodes in a sensor network are severely constrained by energy and computing power. To prolong the lifetime of the sensor nodes, efficient routing algorithm that could also optimize the energy consumption is critical.
Various clustering algorithms have been proposed to organize sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network into clusters. This work presents spatial data correlations are exploited to design cluster based routing algorithms of high data aggregation efficiency, Hierarchy-Based Multipath Routing Protocol (HMRP) for WSNs. A set of cluster heads, is introduced and is responsible for control and management of the network. The common nodes in the network senses environmental changes and report them to cluster head over flexible network architecture.
On rotation basis, cluster heads transmits the aggregated results to common sink node. The number of cluster head can be systematically adjusted to reduce the energy consumption, which may increases the networks life.
The simulation results are expected to indicate that the proposed algorithm for data gathering would increase the lifetime of sensor networks. It is also anticipated that this protocol could outperform than any other clustering based protocols.
There are some issues involved with the process of clustering in a wireless sensor network. First issue is, how many clusters should be formed that could optimize some performance parameter. Second could be how many nodes should be taken into a single cluster. Third important issue is the selection procedure of cluster-head in a cluster. Another issue that has been focused in many research papers is to introduce heterogeneity in the network. Considering the above issues, many protocols have been proposed which deals with each individual issue.
It starts with the sensor nodes to be deployed randomly in the area that is to be monitored. The number of nodes that are to be deployed is determined by the size of the area that is to be monitored. The sharing of routing information between the nodes for communication is automatically done between the nodes. The lowest level of the sensing application is provided by common sensor nodes.
These small, battery-powered devices are placed in areas of interest. Each sensor node collects environmental data primarily about its immediate surroundings. Individual sensor nodes communicate and coordinate with cluster head. Data packets are aggregated in cluster head and then forwarded to sink node.